ASNE DAY '85
Washington, DC—May 2-3 The American Society of Naval Engineers will hold ASNE Day 1985 at the Shoreham Hotel in Washington, D.C., on May 2-3. The theme for this year's meeting is "Capability Versus Cost—The Naval Engineer's Challenge." ASNE Day is the 97-year-old Society's annual national convention, featuring technical sessions, exhibits, and social functions. The two-day meeting will include technical papers on subjects of current interest, such as ship design, combat systems, ship auxiliary systems, naval architecture, ship propulsion, seakeeping, high-performance craft, and energy conservation. More than 150 companies, military commands, and other organizations will display their products and capabilities. These exhibits will represent the latest in the industry and technology that supports the development, construction, and outfit- ting of military and commercial ships. Also represented will be the military commands and laboratories that interface with the industrial community and direct the programs and projects engaged in expanding and modernizing the U.S. Navy Fleet.
A highlight of the ASNE Day is the banquet on the evening of Friday, May 3. This year's banquet speaker will be Vadm. William H. Rowden, Commander, Military Sealift Command, Department of the Navy.
TECHNICAL PROGRAM Thursday, May 2 Palladian Room—Session 1A Ship Design I Moderator: Como. Myron V. Ricketts, USN Edward N. Comstock, assistant 9:00 am "A Fast Combatant Support Ship," by Philip M. Covich This paper presents the evolution of the latest generation of fast combatant support ships, and reviews the approach taken in developing the requirements and the design. It also describes the role the Ships Characteristics Improvement Board played in the design, the deep involvement of the fleet in the generation of the requirements and in the review of the design itself, and the involvement of the industry in the design.
The paper concludes with a detailed discussion of the innovative systems included in the design, such as the upgraded General Electric LM2500 gas turbine, and the special features incorporated to satisfy the latest airborne noise-quieting features. Efforts taken to insure the successful implementation of the new concepts or systems are also outlined.
9:45 am "Naval Ship Design: The Shipbuilder's Emerging Role," by Robert A.Johnson This paper discusses the shipbuilder's new role in naval surface combatant design. It discusses two recent designs in which shipbuilders have been involved extensively in the early design stages. The acquisition strategy for the MSH program directed that competing shipbuilders totally develop designs for the concept, preliminary, and design concept stages. In the second example, a recent destroyer design is used to illustrate a totally different acquisition strategy—that of an inhouse design witb a traditional leadship award selection.
10:30 am "Modernization of the Barque Eagle," by Nien-tszr Tsai, Eugene C. Haciski, and Lcdr. Joseph J. Kucinski, U S CG The U.S. Coast Guard training barque Eagle (WIX-327), ex Horst Wessel, was built in 1936 by Blohm + Voss for the German Navy. Since 1936 she has served continuously as the training vessel for the U.S. Coast Guard. To improve safety and performance, an extensive phased modernization was undertaken from 1979 through 1983 at the Coast Guard Yard. Changes in the subdivision, ballast, and tankages were made to satisfy the criteria for twocompartment damage stability. Extensive renovations of machinery, structure, navigation components, and habitability were also accomplished during the same period.
Diplomat Room—Session IB Ship Auxiliary Systems Moderator: Paul A. Schneider Thomas H. Vodicka, assistant 9:00 am "New Electric Motor-Driven Vapor Compression Distilling Plant for Navy Surface Ships," by Charles D. Rose, James C. Heck, and William F. Pergande This paper describes vapor compression distillation, reviews the process flow diagram and distillation cycle, and presents a brief history of vapor compression distillation. It discusses initial problems, advantages, and disadvantages, along with recent technological improvements. It also reviews the vapor compression plant specified for the DDG-51 program and the specific units tested and installed aboard the USS Foster (DD-964) and USS Thorn (DD998), along with a complete description of the major components and their functions. 9:45 am "Abatement of Pollution from U.S. Navy Ships—the First Ten Years," by Andrew T. Geyer and James A. Spence Jr.
The early 1970s saw the evolution of an aggressive naval research and development program in the area of shipboard pollution control. Early efforts focused on the development of flow-through type marine sanitation devices (MSD). However, available commercial technology could not produce a reliable and easily maintainable MSD that was capable of consistently meeting the effluent discharge requirements established by the Coast Guard.
Anticipating the compliance date of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Navy committed to installing a collection, holding, and transfer (CHT) system on board most of its vessels. Between 1973 and 1983, more than 430 ships and 400 small craft had been fitted with MSDs. In addition, 53 Navy ships have had a state-of-the-art oily waste treatment system installed in anticipation of future requirements. 10:30 am "Navy Air Compressors—Past, Present, and Future," by Joel L. Krinsky, Harry J. Skruch, and William H. Vedder As part of a program to improve shipboard air compressor reliability, NAVSEA and DTNSRDC are developing a new generation of rotary machines to replace ships service reciprocating piston air compressors with new, smaller, lighter, more reliable models.
The successful development of completely water flooded, 125-psi air compressor units by DTNSRDC resulted in the award of a fourphase contract by NAVSEA to a compressor manufacturer to design, build, and test low- and high-pressure shipboard prototypes.
Palladian Room—Session 2A Naval Architecture Moderator: Capt. George H. Moritz, USCG Robert E. Williams, assistant 2:30 pm "Reliability Methods for Ship Structures," by Gregory J. White and Dr. Bilal M. Ayyub The ever-increasing use of highstrength materials and advanced technologies in surface ship structure design requires a careful and systematic analysis to insure that levels of safety are maintained. Due to the uncertainties involved with future loading conditions, material properties, quality of workmanship in construction, and the limitations in numerical methods of analysis, the absolute safety of a structure cannot be established.
This paper evaluates the available methods as to their suitability for estimating the risk of structural failure in ships. It discusses the merits and shortcomings of each method, and each is then used to solve a simple example problem. The most effective method is chosen for more advanced work in this field. 3:15 pm "An Analytical Treatment of the Accuracy of the Results of the Inclining Experiment," by Erik O.
Hansen This paper compares U.S. Navy inclining procedures and those recommended by the U.S. Coast Guard for accuracy of resultant light ship displacement and VCG values. It discusses the errors of the independent parameters, and presents a numerical example of an analysis of an actual ship inclining to demonstrate how much the deviation of the individual parameters affects the accuracy of the inclining result. The paper concludes by suggesting the magnitudes of design allowances required on displacement and VCG in order to account for the probable inaccuracy in the experimentally derived displacement and VCG values. 4:00 pm "Probabilistic Design Techniques for Space Limited Mechanical Elements," by Morris Welling and John Lynch A too-little-known stress analysis technique is applied to the design of a titanium tension member of a sonar array, in a situation where space limitations preclude the application of the conventional factor of safety. The computed safety factor for the critical section in this instance is a normally unacceptable 1.42, based on the tensile yield point, and is only slightly higher based on the ultimate tensile strength.
This paper discusses the significance of the reliability value vis-avis the "factor of safety" design approach, as well as the limitations involved. It offers guidance for establishing overall reliability goals for a unit or assembly with several significantly stressed sections. Diplomat Room—Session 2B Ship Propulsion Moderator: Anthony A. St. George Capt. Gilbert L. Kraine, USCG (Ret.), assistant Lcdr. John H. Preisel, USN, assistant 2:30 pm "Automation of Propeller Inspection and Finishing," by Howard Stern and Robert Metzger U.S. Navy ships' propellers of up to 24 feet in diameter and weighing up to 100,000 pounds are currently measured by manual procedures using pitchometers, templates, and gauges. This measurement process is extremely tedious, labor-intensive, and time-consuming, and only sparse surface data is obtained. In an effort to provide increased accuracy, repeatability, and costeffectiveness in propeller manufacture, the Navy has contracted for an automated propeller optical measurement system (APOMS) that rapidly and automatically scans an entire ship's propeller using a 3-D vision sensor to provide data densities greater than 100 points per square inch.
This equipment is integrated with a propeller robotic automated templating system (PRATS) and the propeller optical finishing system (PROFS), which automatically template and grind the propeller to its final shape using the APOMS-derived data for control feedback. The optical scanning and the final shape are both controlled by CAD/CAM data files describing the desired propeller shape. An automated propeller balancing system is incorporated into the PROFS equipment.
3:15 pm "Naval Propulsion Systems Water Treatment and Control," by Bernadette J. Eichinger This paper briefly describes the causes and effects of corrosion and contamination in conventional steam generator systems, and details treatment and control methodologies currently used by the Navy for the feedwater, steam, condensate, and boiler water. Examples are cited of the manner in which naval personnel are trained in interpretation of analytical data and in trend analysis in order that the ship can exercise preventive and corrective control of problems. The paper concludes with an overview of planned improvements.
4:00 pm "The Machinery Alteration Program," A.M. Cieri and Cdr. L.H.
Kenney, USN This paper describes how the Navy's machinery alteration (MACHALT) program addresses the problem of a whole class of needed design changes with no programmatic means of accomplishing them for ship systems. MACHALTs are design changes to equipments that do not require system interface changes and that can be accomplished outside the industrial activities. The paper also discusses how the concept was developed, the study of other system modification processes that were used for guidance, examples of problems, and how the MACHALT process solves these problems. The paper concludes with an assessment of the program to date.
Friday, May 3 Palladian Room—Session 3A Ship Design II Moderator: Capt. Warren G. Leback, USMS Capt. James W. Kehoe Jr., USN (Ret.), assistant 9:30 am "The Impact of Zone Outfitting on Shipboard Space Utilization and Construction Costs," by Cdr. Stanley C. Stumbo, USN (Ret.) The methods of zone, rather than system-oriented design and construction methods, were principally developed to improve productivity through the application of group technology. However, experience in the U.S. is indicating that these methods are also resulting in unexpectedly high savings in material and weight as well as labor costs, leading to total ship construction cost savings of up to 30 percent. This paper describes a threedimensional approach to the use of enclosed volume. It highlights the remarkable improvements and options in the use of space and the reduction in construction costs that can result from using the zone outfitting methods in warship design and construction instead of conventional system-oriented methods.
10:15 am "Merchant Ship Design for National Defense," by John W. Boylston In the 1960s and 1970s, U.S. shipowners constructed a high percentage of special-purpose vessels such as LASH, Seabee, containerships and RO/ROs. Today, some of those ships have not lived up to the full economic potential due to changing trade patterns. In some cases, with half of the vessel's economic life remaining and the high cost of conversion, lay-up may be the more attractive alternative for the shipowner. This paper presents some examples of how the commercial ships can be designed for future mission changes, and introduces the concept of the national emergency economy defense (NEED) ship.
11:00 am "Reliability Allocation and Prediction for a Fully Distributed Ship Machinery Control System," by Jeannine A. Vail and Steven K. Klein This paper discusses a functional allocation of reliability requirements for a fully distributed machinery control system, using platform level availability and associated top level logistics requirements. The allocation approach chosen uses the number of signals required for a particular control or monitoring function as a measure of subsystem complexity.
The paper also predicts values obtained assuming various sparing levels, as well as system availability using U.S. Navy in-service equipment data and traditional Tiger simulation techniques to assess the realism of each approach.
Diplomat Room—Session 3B Combat Systems I Moderator: Radm. Wayne E. Meyer, USN Cdr. William F. Bassett, assistant 9:30 am "MK 41 Vertical Launching System— Fleet Application," by Capt. James J. Kuletz Jr., USN The unique physical construction and launch control system architecture of the MK 41 vertical launching system (VLS) makes it particularly adaptable to a variety of missiles and ship classes. The U.S. Navy began installing the MK 41 VLS in deep-draft combatants early this year.
System attributes such as increased firepower, reduced manning and training requirements, high reliability, and low maintainability indicate the MK 41 will best answer the fleet's requirement for highly capable launchers at minimum life cycle cost. Several launcher variants can be readily configured from MK 41 launcher components.
10:15 am "Shipboard Explosive Safety and Survivability," by Capt. John H. Chenard, Dr. Glen R. Moore, and Micheal M. Kordich The Navy has recently completed development of a booster rocket motor, MK 70, for use with the new Standard missile. The new missile will be deployed on Terrier new threat upgrade (NTU) ships.
This paper describes the shipboard integration program directed by the Naval Sea Systems Command to insure that ship safety and survivability would not be degraded upon depolyment of SM-2 missiles with the MK 70 booster.
At-sea and land-based tests were conducted to evalutate missile launcher and ship compatability with the new missile system, and to insure increased operational capabilities. The results of these tests are described in this paper, along with the ship, launcher, and missile modifications determined necessary for the safe integration of the SM-2 into the Terrier ships.
11:00 am "Special-Purpose and General- Purpose Programmable Signal Processors," by Dr. Walter Weinstock The availability of high-performance, low-cost processing hardware provides the basis for very powerful programmable signal processing machines. A wide spectrum of machine architectures is available to the system designer. However, as these often have striking functional differences, the selection process must involve much more than a simplistic comparison of processing power. This paper compares the characteristics of generic specialpurpose and general-purpose signal processors to emphasize critical differences. Hampton Room—Session 3C Seakeeping Moderator: Capt. Perry W. Nelson, USN (Ret.) Terrence R. Applebee, assistant 9:30 A.M.
"Human Factors Engineering Principles for Minimizing Adverse Ship Motion Effects: Theory and Practice," by Dr. Alvah C. Bittner and Dr. John C. Guignard As part of a wider seakeeping program conducted by the DTNSRDC, two mission-critical workstations were evaluated for the U.S. Coast Guard. These workstations—the communications support center and the communications center—have been specifically identified by the USCG as having exceptional seasickness problems. Five potentially applicable human factors engineering approaches to enhance seakeeping through prevention and mitigation of adverse ship motion effects, especially seasickness, were recognized and are discussed in this report in the light of observations made aboard the ship.
10:15 am "Methods for Designing Hull Forms with Reduced Motions and Dry Decks," by David A. Walden and Peter Grundmann Twenty existing frigate and destroyer hulls have been used in an investigation of the influence of hull form on seakeeping. Investigations have been carried out to determine if the relative performance rank of the ships changes as a function of ship speed or modal wave period. For example, is the ship that is best at high speed also best at low speeds? A similar study has been carried out of the relative rank of the ships as a function of the weighting factors assigned to different motions included in the measure of merit. Also, does the ship with the least slamming also have the least pitch?
11:00 am "Recent Advances in the Seakeeping Assessment of Ships," by Kathryn K. McCreight and Ralph G. Stahl Three factors affect the performance assessment of a ship in a seaway: the mission requirements, the motion characteristics of the ship, and the environment. Utilizing advances in all three areas, a technology has been developed that facilitates evaluation of the percent of time a specified mission can be performed by a specified ship at a specified location. In conjunction with limiting motion criteria that represent the mission requirements, and transfer functions that represent the motion characteristics of a ship, wave data for each of 57 locations in the North Atlantic and 21 locations in the North Pacific are used to develop contours that describe bands of constant percent of operability. Effectively, responses to numerous wave spectra and the probabilities of occurrence of the wave spectra are considered for each location so that the resulting contours have a reasonable degree of validity. Palladian Room—Session 4A High-Performance Craft Moderator: William M. Ellsworth Allen G. Ford, assistant 2:30 pm "A New Generation of High-Performance Planing Craft," by Otto P. Jons, Joseph Koelbel, and Raymond Sheldon This paper addresses the key aspects of the design development of a capable yet affordable high-performance craft. These aspects include the development of mission requirements, the rationale for major design decisions, performance capabilities, and system and subsystem selection. The superior performance of the design, as demonstrated by an extensive model test program, led to the decision to develop a family of advanced fast patrol boat concepts. Selected family members are also briefly introduced. The paper also demonstrates the successful integration of many major computer-aided design (CAD) programs currently in use for U.S. Navy ship design.
3:15 pm "Air Cushion Landing Craft Navigation," by Herbert R. Graham, Dr. John C. Kim, Edward G.U. Band, Alex W. Fowler This paper considers the problems involved when navigating a high-speed air cushion vehicle by dead reckoning in conditions of poor visibility, and presents a method to assess the ACV's navigational capabilities under these circumstances.
A figure of merit is used to determine the sensitivity of factors that affect navigation, such as the range of visibility, point-to-point distance, speed, turning radius, and accuracy of on-board equipment. The method provides simplistic but adequate answers, and can be used effectively to compare the capability and cost of alternative navigational concepts. 4:00 pm "A Quick Change—Commerical Surface Effect Ship to Coast Guard Patrol Boat," by Cdr. Ronald J. Marafioti, USCG In 1982, the U.S. Coast Guard procured three off-the-shelf, highperformance craft to satisfy an urgent operational need for additional law-enforcement resources. Although originally designed for offshore crew/supply applications, the three 110-foot aluminum surface effect ships (SES) delivered by Bell Halter were modified to satisfy immediate Coast Guard needs. The first two were placed in service in 1982 and the third in 1983.
This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses reported during the operations of these uniquely designed patrol boats, describes the first stage and subsequent retrofit modifications required to improve . their application to Coast Guard service, and introduces modifications to be considered to extend the overall benefit of the unique features of the SES for marine applications. Diplomat Room—Session 4B Combat Systems II Moderator: Como. Lowell J. Holloway, USN James F. Horton, assistant 2:30 pm "A Methodology for Setting Combat System Requirements," by Dennis Mensh This paper describes a methodology for setting combat system requirements for all ship classes. The requirements are determined from a battle group perspective. The methodology uses ship damage as a measure of effectiveness for setting combat system requirements. The ship damage data used in this methodology was derived from the Navy tactical game, NAVTAG.
The methodology that determines ship class combat system requirements consists of a set of logical steps that are iterative by design. The methodology provides insight and valid estimates of numerical measures of defined force requirements at several levels. This process is not trivial; the expected level of effort could be significant. The methodology consists of five basic stages considered necessary to achieve valid results. These stages are: determination of force level re- quirements; determination of force level capability; analysis of force level capability; determination of class requirements by battle overviews; and determination of class requirements, overall.
3:15 pm "Lightweight Broadband HF C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Antenna (LWCA)" by Roy J. Biondi, Richard W. Pride, Harold D.
Murray, and Paul K. Wheeler With the ever-increasing complexity in the integration of the topside environment, the RF aspects of the antenna designs must be augmented by detailed analysis of the operating environment and the mechanical designs if the goals of reliability and quality performance are to be achieved.
The Naval Electronics Systems Command has developed a new Broadband HF Communications Antenna. This paper traces its design evolution and describes the processes in determining current design deficiencies, the design ob- jectives to correct these deficiencies, and the results obtained.
4:00 pm "The Application of Artificial Intelligence to Future Tactical C2 Design," by Arthur J. Murray This paper develops a top-level design for an artificial intelligence (AI) based system that can provide a command level decision-maker with timely and accurate information to support optimal utilization of assets to be employed in theater tactical combat situations.
The paper is divided into two main portions. The first part discusses AI in the general sense, that is, what it is and what it is not, and why such an approach could have broad-sweeping applications in naval battle command and control. The paper then illustrates a generic AIbased decision support system.
The second part of the paper is directed toward examining a specific application of decision support system technology, using Tomahawk mission planning and force management in a battle group as an example, with support to the battle group commander being the primary focus.
Hampton Room—Session 4C Energy Conservation Moderator: Dr. Robert C. Allen Dana Gentile, assistant 2:30 pm "Application of Variable-Speed, Constant-Frequency Generators to Propulsion-Derived Ship Service," by Henry N. Robey, Howard O. Stevens, and Kenneth T. Page The higher specific fuel consumption of present U.S. Navy gas turbine generators, when compared with main propulsion gas turbines, has led to the investigation of propulsion- derived ship service electrical power. Variations in propulsion engine speed require that a generator provide constant frequency with a variable-input shaft speed. A fuel use analysis has been conducted of the application of a variable-speed, constant-frequency generator to a four-gas-turbine, twin-shaft destroyer. Other considerations are the quality of ship service power with the introduction of power electronics to the generating system, and the impact of the new components on system weight, volume, and survivability. Propulsion-derived ship service utilizing VSCF generators offers to provide substantial benefit to Navy combatant ships through the application of proven technology. 3:15 pm "Shipboard Cogeneration—A Second Generation Design Approach," by Thomas P. Mastronarde On the CG-47 Class guided missile cruisers, gas turbine electric generators are operating in a shipboard cogeneration system in conjunction with a successful and reliable waste heat recovery system that provides steam for auxiliary services. The current application philosophy for waste heat recovery from gas turbine auxiliary engines aboard Navy ships, however, has reached a technological plateau. The development and implementation of a second generation waste heat recovery system design could produce substantial benefits for future naval shipboard applications. This paper discusses methods of optimizing the interface between the gas turbine and the waste heat boiler, relocating boiler components, using natural instead of forced circulation to the boiler, and reducing the complexibility of feedwater treatment subsystems.
4:00 pm "Opportunities for Pacific Fleet FF-I052 Class Ships to Save Energy," by Hasan Pehlivan and Clarence W. Kenyon The shipboard energy conservation assist team (SECAT) program was introduced to the U.S. Pacific Surface Fleet (SURFPAC) in 1983 following one year of testing in the Atlantic Surface Fleet (SURFLANT). Experiences aboard SURFLANT ships provided the basis for improvements that could also be made to SURFPAC ships. Chief among these improvements were simplified fuel measurement, fuel curve development methods, an energy survey checklist, and an equipment status board that identifies economic machinery alignments. This paper discusses recent improvements in the SECAT program.
It also examines the differences in fuel consumption observed between SURFLANT and SURFPAC ships.
I t also analyzes the economies of potential solutions to the higher fuel consumption problem aboard SURFPAC ships, with special emphasis on alternative burner designs and forced-draft blower changes. Recommendations are made to reduce fuel consumption both by equipment changes and improved procedures.